專八翻譯6大翻譯技巧整理

作者:admin

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2018-7-18 14:15

漢語和英語的表達習慣不同,常用的句子結構也不同,以下六點翻譯技巧,或許能在專八翻譯中對大家有所幫助。

一、確立主干
1、確立主語
(1)避免主語機械對應
這個地區雨比較多。
It rains a lot in this area.
(2)方位詞或時間詞在主語位置
山下住著一位老婦人。
There lives an old lady at the foot of the mountain.
(3)用it做主語翻譯主語是復合結構的漢語
信不信是你的事。
It is your concern whether you believe me or not.
最好是等他們回來。
It is advisable to wait till they come back.
勤能補拙
It is diligence that makes for deficiency.
2、確立謂語:英語的動詞通常只能由某個動詞或者系表結構擔任
在人際關系上我們不要太浪漫主義。
We shouldn't be too romantic about personal relationship.
當他活著一天,總要盡量多工作、多學習,不肯虛度年華,不讓時間白白地浪費掉。
As long as he is living, he always works and studies as hard as possible, unwilling to dream his life away, let alone waste even a single moment of life.
二、語序調整
1、定語的位置:英語中,單詞充當定語時多為前置,短語和從句充當定語時多為后置。
釣魚是一項能陶冶性情的運動,有益于身心健康。
Fishing is an outdoor sport that can cultivate your mind and it is good for your mental and physical health.
2、狀語的位置
他是1970年5月20日在北京朝陽區出生的。
He was born in Chaoyang District of Beijing on May 20, 1970.
3、漢英語言敘事重心不同:漢語先敘事,后表態或評論,以突出話題,這叫主題句。漢譯英有時會譯為掉尾句,即先表態或評論,后敘事,以突出主語。
萬一有什么困難,給我們一個信。
Send us a message in case you have any difficulty.
4、漢英語言強弱詞語的順序不同:英語遵循前輕后重,前簡后繁的原則。
救死扶傷,實行革命的人道主義。
Heal the wounded, rescue the dying, practice the revolutionary humanitarianism.
一霎時,一陣被人摒棄,為世所遺忘的悲憤兜上心頭,禁不住痛哭起來。
In no time, I was thrown into a feeling of sorrowful anger at being forgotten and abandoned by the rest of the world and could not help crying my heart out.
5、否定的轉移
不是所有的金屬都具有同樣好的導電性能。
All metals do not conduct electricity equally well.
我的朋友都不吸煙。
None of my friends smoke.
6、習慣用法
衣食住行是老百姓關心的大問題。
Food, clothing, shelter and transportation are the biggest concern of the common people.
他饑寒交迫,吃了不少苦。
He suffered a great deal from cold and hunger.
三、正反互換
1、漢語正說,英語反譯
那個房間的窗戶總是關著的。
The windows of that room were never open.
2、漢語反說,英語反譯
漢語用“無、不、沒、非“等詞表示全部否定,在英語中可用no, not, none, nothing, nor, neither等詞以及否定前綴、后綴等來對應翻譯。
學習外語離不開好的詞典。
A good dictionary is indispensable for learning a foreign language.
漢語用“決不、永不、從不“等詞表示絕對否定,在英語中可用never, not at all, by no means等進行對譯。
在任何情況下我們都不應該放棄希望。
Under no circumstances should we give up our hope.
漢語用“并非總是““不是太“等表示部分否定,在英語中可用not every, not much, not always等進行對譯。
漢語中用“幾乎不、很少“等表示半否定,在英語中可用barely, hardly, seldom等進行對譯。
3、漢語反說,英語正譯:英語中有一類詞形式上是肯定的,但意義上是否定的,在翻譯漢語否定句時,可以直接使用。
生活遠非凈是樂事。
Life is far from being a bed of roses.
風景美得無以言表。
The scenery is too beautiful to describe.
4、雙重否定的翻譯:漢譯英的雙重否定用“否定詞+not“來處理。
沒有你的幫助,我是不能按時完成這一工作的。
But for your help, I should not have finished the work in time.
人不會不犯錯誤。
It is impossible but that a man will make some mistakes.
四、語態對譯
1、漢語中的許多隱性被動結構在英譯文中藥轉為顯性。
推薦我的是一位教授。
I was recommended by a professor.
2、漢語泛稱如“有人“、“大家“等做主語時,英譯時多使用被動結構;含有“據說“等不定人稱的詞語時,通常比較固定的用被動結構進行英譯中。
3、漢語表示被動的句子在譯為英語時,也可能轉為主動句:一是表示“開始“、“結束“意義的不及物動詞;二是表示“移位“、“運轉“意義的動詞;三是無靈主語的動作正在進行時。
蔬菜正在鍋里做著。
The vegetables are cooking.
五、長句翻譯
1、原序對譯:針對單一主語長句,關鍵是分清邏輯中心和層次。
我在山坡的小屋里,悄悄掀起窗簾,窺見園中大千世界,一片喧鬧。
Without being noticed, I lifted the curtain of my small room, only to spy a bustle of a kaleidoscopic world down in the garden.
最為常見的是,一個人走著走著突然停下來,眼睛盯著手機屏幕發短信,他不在乎停在馬路中央還是廁所旁邊。
We are very familiar with the scene when a person suddenly stopped his/her steps to edit short messages with eyes glued at the phone, not caring about his/her stopping in the road center or beside the restroom.
中華民族自古以來從不把人看作高于一切,在哲學文藝方面的表現都反映出人在自然界與萬物占著一個比例恰當的地位,而非絕對統治萬物的主宰。
Chinese people has never regarded human being as the highest creature among everything else since ancient times, whose behavior in both philosophy and arts take a rather appropriate proportion with all others in the natural world, but not as an absolute dominant ruler.
2、分句合譯
它們幾乎沒有一個顧得上抬起頭來,看一眼這美麗的黃昏。
Hardly any of them cares to look up and throws a glance at the beautiful twilight.
一個人的生命究竟有多大意義,這有什么標準可以衡量嗎?
Could there be any standards to evaluate the meaning of one’s life?
3、斷句分譯
一個春天的傍晚,園中百花怒放,父母在園中設宴,霎時賓客云集,笑語四溢。
One spring evening, my parents held a banquet in the garden where all sorts of flowers were in full bloom. Instantly, a crowd of guests gathered together and their laughter was heard all over there.
4、主、次信息句
在世紀之交的偉大時代,我們的祖國正在走向繁榮富強,海峽兩岸人民也將加強交流,共同推進祖國統一大業早日完成。
At the turn of century, as our motherland is becoming more prosperous and powerful, people across the Straits will strengthen their exchanges, and work together to realize the cause of the reunification of our motherland.
六、無主句
但是,大體上看一個人對待生命的態度是否嚴肅認真,看待他對待工作、生活的態度如何,也就不難對這個人的存在意義做出適當的估計了。
However, if we, on the whole, can find out whether his attitude towards his life is serious or not and what is his attitude towards his life and work, it would not be difficult to make an appropriate evaluation of the meaning of one’s life.

陕西十一选五走势图最